Early life of Isaac Newton Isaac Newton was born according to the Julian calendarin use in England at the time on Christmas Day, 25 December NS 4 January  "an hour or two after midnight",  at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterwortha hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.
The 17th century was a time of intense religious feeling, and nowhere was that feeling more intense than in Great Britain. Descartes had also made light central to the mechanical philosophy of nature; the reality of light, he argued, consists of motion transmitted through a material medium.
Newton fully accepted the mechanical nature of light, although he chose the atomistic alternative and held that light consists of material corpuscles in motion. The corpuscular conception of light was always a speculative theory on the periphery of his optics, however.
An ancient theory extending back at least to Aristotle held that a certain class of colour phenomena, such as the rainbowarises from the modification of light, which appears white in its pristine form.
Descartes had generalized this theory for all colours and translated it into mechanical imagery. Through a series of experiments performed in andin which the spectrum of a narrow beam was projected onto the wall of a darkened chamber, Newton denied the concept of modification and replaced it with that of analysis.
Basically, he denied that light is simple and homogeneous—stating instead that it is complex and heterogeneous and that the phenomena of colours arise from the analysis of the heterogeneous mixture into its simple components.
He held that individual rays that is, particles of given size excite sensations of individual colours when they strike the retina of the eye. He also concluded that rays refract at distinct angles—hence, the prismatic spectrum, a beam of heterogeneous rays, i.
Because he believed that chromatic aberration could never be eliminated from lenses, Newton turned to reflecting telescopes ; he constructed the first ever built.
The heterogeneity of light has been the foundation of physical optics since his time. There is no evidence that the theory of colours, fully described by Newton in his inaugural lectures at Cambridge, made any impression, just as there is no evidence that aspects of his mathematics and the content of the Principia, also pronounced from the podium, made any impression.
Rather, the theory of colours, like his later work, was transmitted to the world through the Royal Society of London, which had been organized in When Newton was appointed Lucasian professor, his name was probably unknown in the Royal Society; inhowever, they heard of his reflecting telescope and asked to see it.
Pleased by their enthusiastic reception of the telescope and by his election to the society, Newton volunteered a paper on light and colours early in On the whole, the paper was also well received, although a few questions and some dissent were heard.
One can understand how the critique would have annoyed a normal man. The flaming rage it provoked, with the desire publicly to humiliate Hooke, however, bespoke the abnormal.
Newton was unable rationally to confront criticism. Less than a year after submitting the paper, he was so unsettled by the give and take of honest discussion that he began to cut his ties, and he withdrew into virtual isolation. Induring a visit to London, Newton thought he heard Hooke accept his theory of colours.
He was emboldened to bring forth a second paper, an examination of the colour phenomena in thin filmswhich was identical to most of Book Two as it later appeared in the Opticks.
The purpose of the paper was to explain the colours of solid bodies by showing how light can be analyzed into its components by reflection as well as refraction.
His explanation of the colours of bodies has not survived, but the paper was significant in demonstrating for the first time the existence of periodic optical phenomena.Newton and Leibniz, building on this work, independently developed the surrounding theory of infinitesimal calculus in the late 17th century.
Also, Leibniz did a great deal of work with developing consistent and useful notation and concepts. Empedocles of Acragas (c. BC) Inventor of rhetoric and borderline charlatan. His arbitrary explanation of reality with 4 elements (Earth, Air, Fire and Water) and 2 forces (Love and Strife) dominated Western thought for over two millenia.
Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz introduced Calculus to the world.
It is the math of motion and change, and as such, its invention required the creation of a new mathematical system, hence it is broadly used in all fields of engineering, sports, biology, economics, medicine etc. In Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, the German philosopher and mathematician, Newton met a contestant more of his own arteensevilla.com is now well established that Newton developed the calculus before Leibniz seriously pursued mathematics.
It is almost universally agreed that Leibniz . However, after a terrible dispute, Sir Isaac Newton took most of the credit. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz () was a German philosopher, mathematician, and statesman born in the country of Leipzig.
He received his education at the universities of Leipzig, Jena, and Altdorf. He received a doctorate in law.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz He befriended a German mathematician, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus; they corresponded for the rest of their lives. Stepped reckoner.
Leibniz is credited, along with Sir Isaac Newton, with the discovery of calculus.