George Boeree Welcome to "Theories of Personality! It will include biographies, basic terms and concepts, assessment methods and therapies, discussions and anecdotes, and references for further reading. Some of you may find the area a bit confusing.
Rochester Institute of Technology This paper summarizes and examines Eysenck's theory of psychoticism in personality and how it could relate directly to creativity. The main topic covered is Eysenck's view of psychoticism as a dimension of personality and temperament.
Eysenck's theory of psychoticism is based on mostly physiological factors. It states that normal subjects who are not diagnosable psychotics can, under certain circumstances, exhibit some qualities commonly found among psychotics.
It is also shown how he ascribes this theory to creativity and how the genetic and psychological traits of psychoticism and creativity are found to be greatly overlapping. Lastly, an extrapolation and a counterargument posed to Eysenck by Amabile details what Eysenck overlooked, took for granted, or failed to define and incorporate into his theory.
Eysenck developed his model of personality based mostly on a psychophysiological basis. Being a behaviorist, Eysenck considers learned habits of great importance, but more importantly he considered personality differences as growing out of our genetic inheritance Boeree, Because he based his theory on the genetic factors associated with psychology, Eysenck was mainly concerned with what is known as temperament.
Eysenck developed his model of personality and temperament with three dimensions: Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. This became known as the "PEN" model of personality.
Originally Eysenck only theorized about neuroticism and extraversion, but later he realized that psychoticism was also a contributing factor of personality. He then added psychoticism into his theory as the third factor of his model giving birth to his BIG-Three model of personality.
Psychoticism Defined His description of psychoticism states that a person will exhibit some qualities commonly found among psychotics, and that they may be more susceptible, given certain environments, to becoming psychotic. Examples of such psychotic tendencies include recklessness, disregard for common sense, and inappropriate emotional expression to name a few Boeree, As stated by Heath and Martin"It is conceptualized as a continuum of liability to psychosis principally schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder with 'psychopathy' i.
It was also found that the psychoticism scale correlates significantly with other hostility and tough-mindedness scales and traits such as non-acceptance of cultural norms, immaturity, and anti-authoritative attitudes.
Higher psychoticism scores were also reported amongst psychopaths and criminals Howarth, This reinforces the idea Eysenck described as his psychoticism scale. Psychoticism as it Relates to Creativity Many proposals have been given linking Eysenck's psychoticism scale to the level of creativity in people.
It has been generally found that more creative people generally have higher psychoticism scores than people with a lower creativity.
Eysenck stated, "I argue that intelligence is essentially characterized as a search process in order to discover a noegenetic solution, to use Spearman'sterm, bringing together different ideas from memory to produce new answers to problems" p.
Eysenck argues further with Campbell, Funeaux, and Simonton who say that this search process is blind or random by saying that there is strong evidence that search processes of the kind stated are always guided by explicit or implicit ideas of relevance Eysenck, Eysenck poses his argument in relation relevance by saying that there are individual differences to the definition.
By this he means that some people are over inclusive in their thinking, meaning they have a very broad conception of relevance, as opposed to people who have a much more narrow conception of what is relevant. He continues by stating that unusual responses to word association test could be used as a measure of this hypothetical quality.
His suggestion is that individuals with an over-inclusive style of thinking have a larger sample of ideas on which a conclusion can be based.
These people he concludes are able to come up with innovative, unusual and creative ideas more easily than people who have a more conventional view of relevance to a problem.
Ultimately he believes that this could possibly be the base of creativity. On the psychophysiological side, Eysenck finds that the over inclusive thinker is more likely to have a personality which relates to that of a schizophrenic or general psychotic disorder.
The difference is that although the psychoticism score of the creative person is high just as that of someone diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, the creative person not necessarily diagnosable as a psychotic. He attempts to support his proposition by using evidence that there is a true relationship between insanity and genius, that truly creative people have a high psychoticism score on personality tests, and that unusual responses on a word association test are a good measure of psychosis, psychoticism, and creativity.INTRODUCTION TO PERSONALITY PAPER 1 Introduction to Personality Paper By PSY Theories of Personalities Instructor – Jerry Mote September 15th, INTRODUCTION TO PERSONALITY PAPER 2 Introduction to Personality The word personality is one of ancient roots.
Based out of the Latin word, persona, this word was . an introduction to the precise definition of personality cautious. race. definitely or strictly stated. Introduction to Personality Assessment Florida should protect panthers to preserve legacy Introduction Why do an introduction to the precise definition of personality we do personality testing?
and more with flashcards. The Molecular Repair of the Brain by Ralph C. Merkle; Xerox PARC Coyote Hill Road Palo Alto, CA [email protected] Please see the separate article on Information-Theoretic Death for a more recent treatment of this fundamental concept..
This article was published in two parts in Cryonics magazine, Vol. 15 No's 1 & 2, January and April The Cooperative Learning Institute is a (c)3 organization dedcatited to furthering the practice and study of cooperation in the classroom.
The Predictive Index® (PI®) is a theory-based, self-report measurement of normal, adult, work-related personality that was developed and validated for use within occupational and organizational populations.
This paper summarizes and examines Eysenck's theory of psychoticism in personality and how it could relate directly to creativity. The main topic covered is Eysenck's view of psychoticism as a dimension of personality and temperament.