Keats believes that art can open the mind to new worlds and experiences.
Iliad Homer Circa eighth century b.
The following entry contains criticism on Homer's Iliad from to See also Homer Poetry Criticism. A seminal epic widely accepted as one of the greatest literary artifacts of Western civilization, the Iliad has been admired for centuries for its artistry as well as for the profound influence it has exerted on European literature.
Within its epic scope, set in the tenth year of a legendary war between Greeks and Trojans at Ilios Troythe Iliad depicts the heroic ethos of a mythic era personified in the figure of Achilles, a Greek hero of unrivaled martial excellence, who chooses undying fame won on the Inspiration by homer essay over the prospect of a long life.
The epic's proper subject is the wrath of Achilles and its tragic consequences, but it also explores such themes as the workings of fate, honor, and the human urge toward immortality.
Likewise, the Iliad delineates the heroic code—the thematic basis of all subsequent epic poetry. While theories regarding its author, the near-mythic Homer, continue to spur scholarly debate, the poem itself is renowned for its compelling narrative, vivid imagery, poetic technique, psychological scope, and stylistic clarity.
Biographical Information Almost nothing is known about Homer, but scholars hypothesize that he was an Ionian Greek probably from the coast of Asia Minor or one of the adjacent islandsthat he was born sometime before b.
Internal evidence from the two major works attributed to Homer suggests that the Iliad preceded the Odyssey and that both were composed in the eighth century b. Some commentators have even gone so far as to assert that no such individual as Homer ever lived.
Due to the paucity of information regarding Homer, the manner of the composition of the Iliad has been one of determined critical speculation that has brought together the efforts of experts in such fields as archaeology, linguistics, and comparative literature. In the s the critic Milman Parry proposed that both the Iliad and the Odyssey were composed orally.
Comparing Homer's poetry with ancient oral epics from other cultures, Parry deduced that Homer was most likely a rhapsode, or itinerant professional reciter, who improvised stories to be sung at Greek festivals.
As a public performer, Homer probably learned to weave together standard epic story threads and descriptions in order to sustain his narrative, relying on mnemonic devices and phrases to fill the natural metrical units of poetic lines.
Parry's theory stressed the derivative, evolutionary character of Homer's poetry but affirmed his individual genius as a shaper of traditional elements whose creations far exceeded the sum of their borrowed parts.
Many contemporary critics accept Parry's analysis of the authorship question, although critical speculation about the subject continues. Textual History Scholarly consensus regarding the composition of the Iliad holds that the poem was most probably transmitted orally by local bards and first written down on papyri shortly after Homer's death.
Although Homeric Greece did not yet have a system of writing appropriate for literary texts, records indicate that a Phoenician alphabet may have been adapted and used to record the poem in the eighth century b.
Once set down in writing, the poem most likely became the exclusive property of the Homeridae, or sons of Homer, a bardic guild whose members performed and preserved the poem. Scholars conclude that in the second half of the sixth century b.
Scholars are uncertain whether Homer ever used it, for the earliest mention of the title discovered was by Herodotus in the fifth century b. Fragments of papyri, a third-century codex, and two other partial manuscripts exist, but the oldest full surviving manuscript of the poem, probably transcribed by a Byzantine scholar, dates from the ninth century.
The first printed edition of Homer's poetry appeared in Europe in and remained in use until the seventeenth century. Many translations, both prose and verse, of the Iliad have subsequently been published. Critics agree that the most influential of these have been by George Chapman, Alexander Pope, and the translation team consisting of Andrew Lang, Walter Leaf, and Ernest Myers; in the contemporary period the edition most highly regarded and frequently used is that of Richmond Lattimore.
Plot and Major Characters Approximately 15, lines long and divided into twenty-four books a structure that seems to date from the third century b. The action of the poem occurs near the Hellespont, in northwest Asia Minor, during the Trojan War, which archaeologists estimate took place in the second half of the twelfth century b.
The plot begins in medias res, recounting an episode near the end of the war between the besieged Trojans, under King Priam, and the attacking Greeks or Achaeans as they are generally named in the poemled by King Agamemnon of Mycenae and his brother Menelaus of Sparta.
One of Priam's sons, the self-indulgent Paris, has abducted the fabled beauty, Helen, wife of Menelaus. After a massive naval assault, fighting has dragged on for nearly ten years. During that time the Greek armies, including the mighty Myrmidons commanded by Achilles, the bravest and most headstrong of Agamemnon's supporters, have managed to capture and loot a portion of Trojan territory, but have failed to breach the massive walls of Troy.
Incidents in the first book of the epic draw Achilles and Agamemnon into a disastrous quarrel.
Through his refusal to return Chryseis, a captured Trojan girl and the daughter of a priest of Apollo, Agamemnon invites a divine plague on the Greek army.
In order to assuage Apollo's wrath and end the plague, Agamemnon later agrees to part with Chryseis, but demands Briseis, a Trojan concubine to Achilles, as compensation. In response to this dishonor, Achilles withdraws his troops in indignation, refusing to aid Agamemnon any further.
Achilles prays that the Achaeans be defeated on the battlefield in his absence, a message his immortal mother, Thetis, conveys to Zeus, the ruler of the gods. Meanwhile, Agamemnon receives an enigmatic dream from the all-mighty Zeus, telling him he will soon defeat Troy.
Armed with this knowledge, the Greek leader decides to test the resolve of his Achaean warriors.“On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” by John Keats is a poem widely recognised by critics as a pivotal moment in his development as a poet; this work is evidence of his complete mastery of the sonnet form (of which he wrote 64 in total).
Homer personifies this presence in nature and maintains it through the voice of the Muse, his inspiration. There is a deeper essence of a feminine presence in the poem, however, which lies in the characteristics of life itself. Winslow Homer’s, Shore and Surf (above), is an example of how artists take elements from the environment to _____ Warrior, and the history behind the saying, “an elephant never forgets,” are both examples of what type of artistic inspiration?
myth/legend. Related Flashcards. Intro Into Art: Artistic Inspiration What Is Your Essay. Apr 16, · View and download homer essays examples.
Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your homer essay. Iliad, Homer - Essay Homer. Homework Help [In the following essay, Traill contends that Homer does not allow the Trojan hero Hector the full glory he deserves in the Iliad.
Oct 28, · Essay About Inspiration MLA Course and Section Number: THEO D27 Short Essay on Inspiration and Inerrancy It was a routine morning; I woke up to the buzz of my alarm, had breakfast, and was on my way to the park where I have my daily Bible study The Prodigious Tales of Homer Hickam; Camp Daisy - Words; One .