Background[ edit ] Avocourt, one of the many destroyed French villages, candidates for reconstruction funded by reparations On 28 June the Bosnian-Serb Gavrilo Princip assassinated the heir to the throne of Austria-HungaryArchduke Franz Ferdinandin the name of Serbian nationalism.
Drafted in Paris in the opening months ofthe treaty was one of several multi-national agreements that formally ended World War I. The Paris peace conferences had a wide and complex array of tasks to perform. They considered and evaluated movements for independence and self-determination, establishing several new sovereign nations.
But the most pressing issue in Paris was what should be done with Germany. It also proposed international negotiation and dispute resolution, to be facilitated by a newly formed League of Nations.
For this reason, it became popular with the anti-war movement within Germany in the final months of the war; in it was cited and praised both in the Reichstagand by the Kiel mutineers. The prevailing attitude in Paris and London was that Germany had been chiefly, if not entirely responsible for the outbreak of the war.
For that, many argued, Germany should be held accountable and punished. At the Paris negotiations, French prime minister Georges Clemenceau argued forcefully for punitive and restrictive measures against Germany. Among its main terms and conditions: Germany lost substantial amounts of territory.
The Rhineland, an area of German territory bordering France, was ordered to be demilitarised, as a means of protecting the French border. Another German border region, the Saarland, was occupied and administered by France.
Germany was banned from entering into any political union or confederation with Austria. The German Reichswehr army was restricted in size.
It could contain no more thanmen and was forbidden from using conscription to fill its ranks. There were also restrictions on the size and composition of its officer class. The German military was subject to other restrictions and prohibitions.
Naval vessels were restricted in tonnage while bans were imposed on the production or acquisition of tanks, heavy artillery, chemical weapons, aircraft, airships and submarines.
These terms were formulated by the Allies without the input of Germany, which was not permitted to attend the Paris peace summit.
In May German delegates were finally invited to Paris. After being kept waiting for several days, they were presented with the draft treaty.
The German foreign minister, Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, spoke at Versailles, suggesting that while his country was prepared to make amends for its wartime excesses, the suggestion that Germany was alone in starting the war or exceeding the rules of war was baseless: We are ready to admit that unjust things have been done.
We have not come here to diminish the responsibility of the men who have waged war politically and economically, or to deny that breaches of the law of nations have been committed… But the measure of guilt of all those who have taken part can be established only by an impartial inquiry, a neutral commission before which all the principals in the tragedy can be allowed to speak, and to which all archives are open.
We have asked for such an inquiry and we ask for it once more… In their hearts, the German people will resign themselves to a hard lot if the bases of peace are mutually agreed on and not destroyed.
A peace which cannot be defended before the world as a peace of justice will always invite new resistance. No one could sign it with a clear conscience, for it could not be carried out. No one could venture to guarantee its execution, though this obligation is required by the signing of the treaty.
When news of the treaty reached Germany it generated a firestorm of public anger. There were few moments of national unity in Weimar Germany — but the response to Versailles was one of them. Erich Ludendorff considered the treaty the work of Jews, bankers and plotting socialists. Almost every newspaper in Germany slammed the treaty and screamed for the government to reject it.
For two tense months, the Weimar government debated the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. President Friedrich Ebert was also opposed to the Versailles treaty.Recommended Citation.
Roche, Michael Agnes, "The Attitude of the United States Senate Toward the Versailles Treaty" (). Master's Theses The Attitude of the United States Senate Toward the Versailles Treaty Michael Agnes Roche Loyola University Chicago This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses and Dissertations at Loyola eCommons.
It has been accepted for inclusion in Master's Theses by an authorized administrator of Loyola eCommons.
Apr 24, · What were the attitudes of britain, france, and germany towards the treaty of versailles? after WWI, the Treaty of Versailles was signed to basically blame Germany for all the damages that the war has arteensevilla.com: Resolved. 1. The Treaty of Versailles, drafted in , formally concluded hostilities between the Allies and Germany.
Germany was not a party to treaty negotiations but was handed peace terms in May , inviting protest. 3. The treaty was widely opposed within Germany, the government briefly considered refusing to sign and ratify.
4. The treaty was presented to the German delegation for signature on May 7, , at the Palace of Versailles near Paris. The Treaty of Versailles held Germany responsible for starting the war and liable for massive material damages.
Provisions of the Versailles Treaty. Germany lost 13 percent of its territory, including 10 percent of its population. In , Clemenceau lost the presidential election because of his perceived leniency towards Germany in the Treaty of Versailles.
That is a bit surprising given that the Germans hated Clemenceau for his vindictive attitude towards Germany.