It has been created within the larger realm of post-colonial literaturealthough scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power. This oral poetry also appears in the African-American tradition of Christian sermonswhich make use of deliberate repetition, cadence, and alliteration. African-American literature—especially written poetry, but also prose—has a strong tradition of incorporating all of these forms of oral poetry. Some scholars resist using Western literary theory to analyze African-American literature.
Middle Passage The history and plight of african americas the Atlantic slave trade there were already people of African descent in America.
A few countries in Africa would buy, sell, and trade other enslaved Africans, who were often prisoners of war, with the Europeans. The people of Mali and Benin are known for partaking in the event of selling their prisoners of war and other unwanted people off as slaves.
On the ships, the slaves were separated from their family long before they boarded the ships. The women on the ships often endured rape by the crewmen.
This gave crewmen easy access to the women which was often regarded as one of the perks of the trade system. Male slaves were the most likely candidates to mutiny and only at times they were on deck.
In order for the crew members to keep the slaves under control and prevent future rebellions, the crews were often twice as large and members would instill fear into the slaves through brutality and harsh punishments. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years.
This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean. Additionally, released servants had to be replaced.
Massachusetts was the first colony to legalize slavery in Other colonies followed suit by passing laws that passed slavery on to the children of slaves and making non-Christian imported servants slaves for life.
In all, about 10—12 million Africans were transported to the Western Hemisphere. The vast majority of these people came from that stretch of the West African coast extending from present-day Senegal to Angola; a small percentage came from Madagascar and East Africa.
The vast majority went to the West Indies and Brazil, where they died quickly. Demographic conditions were highly favorable in the American colonies, with less disease, more food, some medical care, and lighter work loads than prevailed in the sugar fields.
They avoided the plantations. With the vast amount of good land and the shortage of laborers, plantation owners turned to lifetime slaves who worked for their keep but were not paid wages and could not easily escape. Slaves had some legal rights it was a crime to kill a slave, and a few whites were hanged for it.
Generally the slaves developed their own family system, religion and customs in the slave quarters with little interference from owners, who were only interested in work outputs.
Before the s, the North American mainland colonies were expanding, but still fairly small in size and did not have a great demand for labour, so the colonists did not import large numbers of African slaves at this point.
Some had been shipped directly from Africa most of them were from sbut initially, very often they had been shipped via the West Indies in small cargoes after spending time working on the islands.
Their legal status was now clear: As white settlers began to claim and clear more land for large-scale farming and plantations, the number of slaves imported directly from Africa began to rapidly increase between the s into the s and onward, since the trade in slaves coming in from the West Indies was much too small to meet the huge demand for the now fast-growing North-American mainland slave market.
Additionally, most American slave-buyers no longer wanted slaves coming in from the West Indies - by now they were either harder to obtain, too expensive, undesirable, or more often, ruined in many ways by the very brutal regime of the island sugar plantations. As a result, freshly imported, young, and healthy Africans were now much more affordable, cheaper in price, and more readily available in large numbers to American slave buyers, who by now preferred to purchase them, even if it took some time for them to adjust to a new life as plantation slaves.
From about tothe majority of slaves imported to the North American mainland came directly from Africa in huge cargoes to fill the massive spike in demand for much-needed labour to work the continually expanding plantations in the Southern colonies later to be stateswith most heading to Virginia, South Carolina, and French or Spanish Louisiana.
However, big Northern cities like New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, had relatively large black populations slave or free for most of the colonial period and thereafter. From the s, American-born slaves of African descent already began to outnumber African-born slaves. By the time of the American Revolution, a few of the Northern states had begun to consider abolishing and slavery, and some Southern states like Virginia had produced such large and self-sustaining locally-born slave populations by natural increase, that they stopped taking in, direct imports of slaves from Africa altogether but still kept slavery, which continued in the South.
However, other Southern states like Georgia and South Carolina still relied on constant, fresh supplies of slave labour to keep up with the demand of their burgeoning plantation economies, so they continued to allow the direct importation of slaves from Africa right up toonly stopping for a few years in the s, because of a temporary lull in the trade brought on by the American Revolutionary War.
All legal, direct importation of slaves from Africa had stopped bywhen the now, newly formed United States finally banned its citizens from participating in the international slave trade altogether by law. Despite the ban, small to moderate cargoes of slaves were occasionally being illegally shipped into the United States directly from Africa for many years, as late as People.
The population is mainly of African descent, with some Europeans, people from the Indian subcontinent, and arteensevilla.comca is the only island with a relatively large and distinctive group of Carib Indians, descendants of the people who inhabited the island before European colonization.
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African-American history is the part of American history that looks at the African-Americans or Black Americans in the United States. Palmer, Colin A. ed. Encyclopedia Of African American Culture And History: The Black Experience In The Americas (6 vols, ). Summary/Annotation -> The book, A History of the African-Olmecs and Black Civilizations of America F rom Prehistoric Times to the Present Era, is one of the most fascinating, well-researched and well-written books on the subject of the Black and Black African presence in prehistoric and ancient Americas.
This book deals with the current and past findings on the ancient African-Americas.